Apollo 12 Drive Core Samples

Apollo 12 Drive Core Samples

I think the Apollo 12 drive tube core samples are the most important samples we have at that site because they tell us what’s beneath the surface. Almost all of the material that our Homesteaders are going to excavate and process is below the top couple of centimeters. And Lunar regolith is such a heterogeneous mix that we can’t assume that surface samples are telling the whole story. Fortunately, the Apollo 12 crew took 3 core samples using simple drive tubes. They didn’t go very deep or very far but at least we have SOMETHING.

General info:

  • The paper “Description of Core Samples Returned by Apollo 12 “ (resource 1) has a detailed description of the drive tube sampling device and how it was used.
  • The Lunar Core Catalog (resource 7) details the collection and preparation procedures, as well as core descriptions.

 

Apollo 12 Core Sample Map

Description of Core Samples Returned by Apollo 12 (NASA TM X-58066) (curator.jsc.nasa.gov/lunar/catalogs/other/apollo12descriptioncoresamples.pdf)

Samples
  • 12025
    • Sample 12028 was taken with a two-part drive tube. The upper section retains the designation 12028. The lower section is sample 12025.
    • Chemistry – Should be compared to 12042 and 12044 as they were taken in the same area (8).
    • Surface photos = NASA AS12-48-7077, AS12-49-7285 to AS12-49-7288 (1)
    • LSPET photos = NASA S-69-23722 to S-69-23727, S-69-238-3 to S-69-23808, S-70-20400, S-70-21302 to S-70-21309 (1)

 

  • 12026
    • Collected near the Lunar Module on the northeast edge of Surveyor Crater (1).
    • Uniformly medium dark gray (N4-3) to dark gray (1 OYR4/1) color (1, pg 2).
    • No stratigraphic breaks are apparent because apparently the core failed to completely penetrate the Surveyor Crater ejecta blanket (1). The number of rock fragments abruptly increase below a transverse fracture at 5.9 cm depth (1).
    • The sample was split into three sections:
      • Top portion
        • Median grain size = 62 micrometers (1, pg 2).
      • Middle portion
        • Median grain size = 74 micrometers (1, pg 2).
      • Bottom portion
        • Median grain size = 110 micrometers (1, pg 2).
    • Chemistry
      • The bulk composition of this core has not been measured. It’s assumed that the composition is similar to 12001 or 12070 as they were all taken from the area near the LM (8).
    • It is unclear as to what remains of this sample (8). What? How can NASA not know EXACTLY what has happened to each sample? Apparently 47 grams were used for biological quarantine studies (8). I assume the rest is still waiting to be analyzed.
    • Photograph = NASA S-69-62760 (1)
    • LSPET photos = NASA S-69-60356 to S-69-60363, S-69-60477 to S-69-60481, S-69-60488 to S-69-60493, S-69-61191 to S-69-61195, S-69-62744 to S-69-62762 (1)
    • Surface photos = NASA AS12-47-7007 to AS12-47-7008 (1)
    • The high-resolution photograph doesn’t show much. The sample looks like a fine, compacted dark grey powder. There were very few rocks and those look small. The sample looked to be homogenous without any layering. (3)
    • References for Sample 12026
      • Carrier W.D., Johnson S.W., Werner R.A. and Schmidt R. (1971) Disturbance in samples recovered with the Apollo core tubes. Proc. 2ndLunar Science Conf. 1959-1972.
      • Duke M.B. and Nagle J.S. (1976) Lunar Core Catalog. JSC09252 rev. Curators’ Office
      • Shoemaker E.M. and 12 others (1970b) 10. Preliminary geologic investigation of the Apollo 12 landing site. In Apollo 12 Preliminary Science Rpt. NASA SP-235 page 113-156.
      • Quaide W., Overbeck V.R., Bunch T. and Polkowski G. (1971) Investigations of the natural history of the regolith at the Apollo 12 site. Proc. Second Lunar. Sci. Conf.701-718.

 

  • 12027
    • Sample taken with single drive tube from the bottom of a 20 cm deep trench that intercepted the rim crest of Sharp Crater (6).
      • The trench was made collecting 12023 and 12024.
    • The core is from a cross-section of the regolith spanning 20 cm to 53 cm from the surface (6). The core penetrated 33 cm below the trench bottom but only captured 17 cm in the core barrel, making recovery 55% successful (6).
    • It is assumed that a partial sample was captured for every layer encountered instead of a failure to capture specific layers or the loss of some of the sample during recovery (6).
    • Dissection of the sample took place in one pass, with splits numbered downward from the top of the core (the material closest to the Lunar surface) (6):
      • (Unit 4) [0.0 – 2.5 cm]
        • Light color (Color differences are subtle for this sample. The entire range for the sample is 3/1 to 4/1 on the Munsell color scale).
        • Relative grain size = coarse 10-20% > 1 mm
        • Crumbly. The upper 1 cm contains soil clods and a piece of wire. The lower 1.5 cm is very rich in basalt fragments and relatively cohesive.
      • (Unit 3) [2.5 – 11.5 cm]
        • Dark color
        • Relative grain size = fine 2-5% > 1 mm
        • This unit is very cohesive. Agglutinates, fragmented glass, and soil breccia are the most common components in the > 1 mm fraction. Basalt is moderately common. Glassy material appears to  be very abundant in the fine size fraction.
      • (Unit 2) [11.5 – 13.5 cm]
        • Moderately dark color
        • Relative grain size = fine 2% > 1 mm
        • Moderately friable. Dark matrix breccia unusually abundant in the course fraction, at the expense of other particle types.
      • (Unit 1) [13.5 – 17.0 cm]
        • Moderately dark color
        • Relative grain size = course 10 – 15% > 1 mm
        • Very crumbly. Concentration of large particles of in-situ vesicular glass and underlying soil breccia.
    • A detailed drawing of the sample and a table detailing the composition (fine and coarse) of each 0.5 cm is available on the last page of resource (6). It’s interesting but I don’t think it’s relevant to what I need.
    • A lot of coarse basalt particles were found in the 1 to 2.5 cm zone (8).
    • The bottom of the core held an abundance of agglutinates (8). The agglutinate content is low for the entire core though, approximately 10-20% (8)
    •  Chemistry
      • Soil maturity (8)
        • Top and bottom of core = submature (Is/FeO=40)
        • Middle of core = mature (Is/FeO=75)
      • The chemical composition of the top portion of the sample (,375) should be compared to sample 12023, which was collected from the bottom of the same trench (8).
      • The base of the core is KREEP-rich (8).
      • Elements (% by weight)(8)
        • FeO = 16.1
        • TiO2 = 2.6
        • Al2O3 = 13.6
        • MgO = 10
        • CaO = 10.8
        • Na2O = 0.59
        • K2O = 0.36
        • MnO = 0.19
    • LSPET photos = NASA S-70-18021 to S-70-18022 (1)
    • Surface photos = NASA AS12-48-7068 to AS12-48-7070, AS12-49-7279 to AS12-49-7280 (1)
    • The high-resolution photographs don’t show much to my non-trained eyes. The sample looks like a fine, compacted dark tan powder. There were very few rocks and those look small. The sample looked to be homogeneous without any layering. (4)
    • References for Sample 12027
      • Allton J.H. (1989) Catalog of Apollo lunar surface geologic sampling tools and containers. JSC-23454 pp97 Curator’s Office. JSC.
      • Carrier W.D., Johnson S.W., Werner R.A. and Schmidt R. (1971) Disturbance in samples recovered with the Apollo core tubes. Proc. 2ndLunar Science Conf. 1959-1972.
      • Duke M.B. and Nagle J.S. (1976) Lunar Core Catalog. JSC09252 rev. Curators’ Office
      • Morris R.V. and Lauer H.V. (1982) Stratigraphy of core 12027 and section 64002 of core 64001/2: FeO and Is/FeO depth profiles (abs). Lunar Planet. Sci. XIII, 544-545. Lunar Sci. Inst.
      • Nagle J.S. (1980c) Possible rim crest deposits in cores 12027 and 15008: Some interpretations and problems for future research. Proc. 11 thLunar Planet. Sci. Conf.1479-1496.
      • Smith M.R., Laul J.C., Simon S.B. and Papike J.J. (1985) Chemistry and petrology of Apollo 12 drive tube 12027. Proc. 15th Lunar Planet. Sci. Conf.C507-C516.

 

  • 12028
    • This sample was taken with a two-part drive tube. Sample 12025 is the lower section.
    • The entire drive tube was 69 cm but only 41 cm of material was returned, with the bottom half (sample 12028) being completely full (8).
    • The sample was taken from the rim of a 10 meter crater south of Halo Crater (1). The sample was taken 30 meters from Halo Crater and 220 meters from Bench Crater (8).
    • Unlike the other two drive core samples, sample 12028-12025 has easily recognizable stratigraphy (1). Ten morphologic units are identified and numbered from bottom to top (1). Unit 3 was further subdivided based on textural breaks into 4 smaller units (A-D), beginning at the bottom (1). A total of 16 depositional events may be recorded in this sample (1).
      • Depths and thicknesses have not been corrected for sampling procedure compaction.
      • Unit I (1, pg 3)
        • Depth = 39.3 to 41.1+ cm
        • Thickness = 1.8+ cm
        • Color = Medium to light gray (N5)
        • Nature of lower contact = not intersected
        • Grain size (median) – 116.6 micrometers
        • Lighter in color than all other units except IX. Homogeneous in color and texture. Somewhat more coarsely textured than Unit II.
        • Contains many coarse particles of glass and rock 1-7 mm maximum diameter (1, pg 21)
        • Photos = NASA S-69-23740 and S-69-23729
      • Unit II (1, pg 4)
        • Depth = 35.7 cm to 39.3 cm
        • Thickness = 3.6 cm
        • Color = Medium gray (N3 to N4)
        • Nature of lower contact = sharply defined
        • Grain size (median) = 90.9 micrometers
        • Heterogeneous in color and texture. Contains more particles > 1 mm than most units. Generally, particles are distinctly angular. Several white particles were very friable and disintegrated when picked up. The soil is slightly coarser than overlying unit.
        • Photo – NASA S-69-23730
      • Unit III-A (1, pg 4)
        • Depth = 30.7 to 35.7 cm
        • Thickness = 5.0 cm
        • Color = Medium gray to dark olive (N3 to 5Y3/1)
        • Nature of lower contact = sharply defined with a concentration of larger particles near the contact
        • Grain size (median) = 64.7 micrometers
        • Similar in color to units below and above. More uniform in color and coarser than Unit III-B. Weakly cohesive and forms aggregrates up to 3 mm in diameter. Contains few particles > 1mm in diameter, except near the lower contact where an increased concentration of larger feldspathic breccia particles are found. These particles are light in color, disintegrate when picked up, and are also present in Unit IX.
        • Photo = NASA S-69-23728
      • Unit III-B (1, pg 5)
        • Depth = 28.0 to 30.7 cm
        • Thickness = 2.7 cm
        • Color = Medium gray to dark olive (N3 to 5Y3/1)
        • Nature of lower contact = poorly defined, marked mainly by change in texture
        • Grain size = not determined
        • Lower portion is homogeneous in color and texture. Weakly cohesive. Upper cm of the unit contains lighter (N5) masses with the same cohesive properties as the surrounding darker soil. Non-coherent masses are 1-2 mm diameter and are associated with a slight coarsening of the texture of the soil. The unit contains 9 particles 1 mm or larger in diameter. This unit is probably a composite and consists of soil deposited by at least two events.
        • Photo = NASA S-69-23758
      • Unit III-C (1, pg 5)
        • Depth = 25.7 to 28.0 cm
        • Thickness = 2.3 cm
        • Color = Medium gray to dark olive (N3 to 5Y3/1)
        • Nature of lower contact = poorly defined textural change
        • Grain size = not determined
        • The lower portion is homogeneous in color and texture. The upper 0.5 cm of the unit contains lighter (N5), incohesive masses of soil up to 2 mm in diameter. This unit was probably formed by more than one depositional event. This unit contains a higher density of particles 1 mm or larger in diameter than Unit III-A and III-B. The particles are uniformly distributed.
        • Photo = NASA S-69-23731
      • Unit III-D (1, pg 6)
        • Depth = 22.0 to 25.7 cm
        • Thickness – 3.7 cm
        • Color = Medium gray to dark olive (N3 to 5Y3/1)
        • Nature of lower contact = poorly defined textural change
        • Grain size (median) =125.0 micrometers
        • Soil is weakly cohesive and forms aggregates up to 3 mm in diameter, which readily break into sub-rounded masses 1 mm in diameter. Faint color mottling throughout, indicating incomplete mixing during deposition. The unit is homogeneous in texture except for a concentration of 1+ mm particles 1.5 to 3.0 cm below upper contact.
        • Photo = NASA S-69-23757
      • Unit IV (1, pg 6)
        • Depth = 18.3 to 22.0 cm
        • Thickness = 3.7 cm
        • Color = Light medium gray (N4)
        • Nature of lower contact = gradational over approximately 3 mm, distinct color change
        • Grain size (median) = 61.2 micrometers
        • Lighter in color than adjacent units. Consists of loose, weakly cohesive soil which formed angular to sub-angular aggregates up to 4 mm in diameter during sampling. Contains sub-rounded masses of lighter colored soil (N5) approximately 1 cm below upper contact. These masses are up to 1 mm in diameter and have the same cohesive properties as the soil.
        • Photo = NASA S-69-23732
      • Unit V (1, pg 7)
        • Depth = 14.8 to 18.3 cm
        • Thickness = 3.5 cm
        • Color = Medium gray to dark olive (N3 or N4 to 5Y3/1)
        • Nature of lower contact = abrupt  but slightly irregular
        • Grain size (median) = 97.4 micrometers
        • Texturally relatively homogeneous with a slight increase in grain size toward the upper contact. General lightening upward. The lower contact is defined by a color change. The lower contact is not smooth but consists of wave-like projections of lighter material from Unit IV which extends 1-2 mm above the general level of contact into Unit V. The waves and projections are similar to flame structures found in turbidite sequences, suggesting they may be result of drag at the depositional interface as Unit V was deposited.
        • Photo = NASA S-69-23733
      • Unit VI (1, pg 7)
        • Depth = 12.6 cm to 14.8 cm
        • Thickness = 2.2 cm
        • Color = Olive (10Y3/1)
        • Nature of lower contact = sharply defined with an abrupt textural change
        • Grain size (median) = 595 micrometers
        • Unit VI is unique in composition and grain size, consisting of angular rock and mineral fragments approaching 1 cm in length. Many grains are roughly oblate or flake shaped and lie with their a/b planes parallel to the bedding planes. The particles are mostly olivine with smaller proportions of pyroxene, plagioclase, and basaltic rock fragments. Dark-brown glass is present in small amounts. The well-defined upper contact and the lack of mixing across this boundary suggest rapid burial.
        • Crust-like layer of glass, olivine crystals, weakly bonded gabbro fragments (1, pg 21)
        • Photo = NASA S-69-23409 and S-69-23755
      • Units VII and VIII (1, pg 8)
        • Units VII and VIII are parts of what may have been a single unit that happened to be separated by the junction of the two drive tubes.
        • Depth = 3.1 to 12.6 cm
        • Thickness = 9.2 cm (+0.3 cm gap between tubes)(9.5 cm total)
        • Color = Medium gray to dark olive (N3 to 5Y3/1)
        • Nature of lower contact = well defined, but mixing occurs over a zone 1 mm thick
        • Grain size (median)
          • Unit VII = 100.2 micrometers
          • Unit VIII = 74.4 micrometers
        • Homogeneous in color and texture. The soil is weakly cohesive and formed loose aggregates 1-2 mm in diameter during sampling. The soil contains few particles 1 mm or larger but did contain 1 rock fragment 1.2 cm in diameter (the largest single particle in the core sample).
        • Photo = NASA S-69-23806, S-69-23754, S-70-21309
      • Unit IX (1, pg 9)
        • Depth = 1.6 to 3.1 cm
        • Thickness = 1.5 cm
        • Color = Medium gray (N5)
        • Nature of lower contact = gradational over 1 mm, but well defined
        • Grain size (median) = 94.8 micrometers
        • Markedly lighter in color, but still homogeneous, than surrounding units. The texture is slightly coarser in the uppermost centimeter. Unit IX contains 5 angular fragments (light in color and appear to be feldspathic breccias) that are larger than most particles encountered except in Unit VI.
        • Crust-like layer, friable, some strongly bonded aggregates (1, pg 21)
        • Photo = NASA S-70-21309
      • Unit X (1, pg 9)
        • Depth = 1 to 1.6 cm
        • Thickness = 1.6 cm
        • Color = Dark gray to dark olive (N3 to 5Y3/1)
        • Nature of lower contact = sharply defined
        • Grain size (median) = 92.8 micrometers
        • Homogeneous in color and texture but appears slightly coarser grained in the lower 4 mm. The soil is loose and weakly cohesive.
        • Photo = NASA S-70-21309
    • Average grain size = 64 to 125 microns (8). The 2 cm thick coarse layer had an average grain size of 600 microns (8).
    • Mineralogical mode (8)
      • Unit X
        • Glazed aggregates = 46
        • Glass = 14
        • Breccia = 3
        • Basalt = 3
        • Anorthosite = ?
        • Mineral = 29
      • Unit IX
        • Glazed aggregates = 10
        • Glass = 9
        • Breccia = 21
        • Basalt = 15
        • Anorthosite = 2
        • Mineral = 42
      • Unit VII
        • Glazed aggregates = 44
        • Glass = 10
        • Breccia = 0
        • Basalt = 8
        • Anorthosite = ?
        • Mineral = 37
      • Unit VI
        • Glazed aggregates = 39
        • Glass = 12
        • Breccia = 2
        • Basalt = 5
        • Anorthosite = 1
        • Mineral = 40
      • Unit V
        • Glazed aggregates = ?
        • Glass = 1
        • Breccia = ?
        • Basalt = ?
        • Anorthosite = ?
        • Mineral = 99
      • Unit IV
        • Glazed aggregates = 14
        • Glass = 22
        • Breccia = 5
        • Basalt = 10
        • Anorthosite = ?
        • Mineral = 46
      • Unit III-u
        • Glazed aggregates = 9
        • Glass = 6
        • Breccia = 7
        • Basalt = 22
        • Anorthosite = ?
        • Mineral = 54
      • Unit III-m
        • Glazed aggregates = 23
        • Glass = 9
        • Breccia = 5
        • Basalt = 23
        • Anorthosite = 5
        • Mineral = 34
      • Unit II
        • Glazed aggregates = 6
        • Glass = 15
        • Breccia = 2
        • Basalt = 4
        • Anorthosite = 1
        • Mineral = 47
      • Unit I
        • Glazed aggregates = 1
        • Glass = 10
        • Breccia = 31
        • Basalt = 5
        • Anorthosite = 1
        • Mineral = 51
    • Chemistry:
      • The coarse layer is an olivine basalt (8).
      • Carbon content = 130 ppm (8).
      • Nitrogen content = 130 ppm at surface, 90 ppm at depth (8).
      • REE content is quite high (8).
    • Surface photos = NASA AS12-48-7077, AS12-49-7285 to AS12-49-7288
    • LSPET photos = NASA S-69-23396 to S-69-23412, S-69-23728 to S-69-23758, S-69-60570 to S-69-60572, S-69-62763 to S-69-62765, S-69-64424 (1)
    • The high-resolution photograph doesn’t show much. The sample looks like a fine, compacted dark tan powder. There were very few rocks and those look small. The sample looked to be homogenous without any layering. (5)
    • References for Sample 12028/12025
      • Allton J.H. (1989) Catalog of Apollo lunar surface geologic sampling tools and containers. JSC-23454 pp97 Curator’s Office. JSC.
      • Arrhenius G., Liang S., MacDougal D., Wilkening L., Bhandari N., Bhat S., Lal D.,Rajagopalan G., Tamhane A.S., and Venkatavaradan V.S. (1971) The exposure history of the Apollo 12 regolith. Proc. 2ndLunar Sci. Conf. 2583-2598.
      • Basford J.R., Dragon J.C., Pepin R.O., Coscio M.R. and Murthy V.R. (1973) Krypton and Xenon in lunar fines. Proc. 4thLunar Sci. Conf.1915-1955.
      • Bottino M.L., Fullagar P.D., Schnetzler C.C. and Phillpotts J.A. (1971) Sr isotopic measurements in Apollo 12 samples. Proc. 2ndLunar Sci. Conf.1487-1491.
      • Burlingame A.L., Hauser J.S., Simonett B.R., Smith D.H., Biemann K., Mancuso N., Murphy R., Flory D.A. and Reynolds M.A. (1971) Preliminary organic analysis of the Apollo 12 cores. Proc. Second Lunar Sci. Conf.1891-1899.
      • Cadogen P.H., Eglinton G., Firth J.N.M., Maxwell J.R., Mays B.J. and Pillinger C.T. (1972) Survey of lunar carbon compounds: II. The carbon chemistry of Apollo 11, 12, 14 and 15 samples. Proc. 3rdLunar Sci. Conf. 2069-2090.
      • Carrier W.D., Johnson S.W., Werner R.A. and Schmidt R. (1971) Disturbance in samples recovered with the Apollo core tubes. Proc. 2ndLunar Science Conf. 1959-1972.
      • Comstock G.M., Evwaraye A.O., Fleischer R.L. and Hart H.R. (1971) The particle track record of lunar soil. Proc. Second lunar Sci. Conf.2569-2582.
      • Duke M.B. and Nagle J.S. (1976) Lunar Core Catalog. JSC09252 rev. Curators’ Office Fryxell R. and Heiken G. (1974) Preservation of lunar core samples: Preparation and interpretation of three-dimensional stratigraphic sections. Proc. 5th Lunar Sci. Conf. 935-966.
      • Ganapathy R., Keays R.R. and Anders E. (1970) Apollo 12 lunar samples: Trace element analysis of a core and the uniformity of the regolith. Science 170,533-535.
      • Heiken G.H. (1975) Petrology of lunar soils. Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 13, 567-587.
      • Housley R.M., Cirlin E.H., Paton N.E. and Goldberg I.B. (1974) Solar wind andmicrometeorite alteration of the lunar regolith. Proc. 5th Lunar Sci. Conf.2623-2642.
      • Hoyt H.P., Walker R.M., Zimmerman D.W. and Zimmerman J. (1972) Thermoluminescence of indiviual grains and bulk samples of lunar fines. Proc. 3rd Lunar Sci. Conf.2997-3007.
      • Laul J.C., Morgan J.W., Ganapathy R. and Anders E. (1971) Meteoritic material in lunar samples: Characterization from trace elements. Proc. 2nd Lunar Sci. Conf.1139-1158.
      • Marti K. and Lugmair G.W. (1971) Kr81-Kr and Kr-Ar40 ages, cosmic-ray spallation products and neutron effects in lunar samples from Oceanus Procellarum. Proc. 2nd Lunar Sci. Conf. 1591-1605.
      • McKay D.S., Morrison D.A., Clanton U.S., Ladle G.H. and Lindsay J. (1971) Apollo 12 soil and breccias. Proc. Second Lunar Sci. Conf. 755-774.
      • Meyer C., Brett R., Hubbard N.J., Morrison D.A., McKay D.S., Aitken F.K, Takeda H. and Schonfeld E. (1971) Mineralogy, chemistry and origin of the KREEP component in soils from the Ocean of Storms. Proc. 2nd Lunar Sci. Conf. 393-411.
      • Moore B.B., Lewis C.F., Larimer J.W., Delles F.M., Gooley R.C., Nichiporuk W. and Gibson E.K. (1971) Total carbon and nitrogen abundances in Apollo 12 lunar samples. Proc. 2nd Lunar Sci. Conf. 1343-1350.
      • Nishiizumi K., Imamura M., Kohl C.P., Murrell M.T., Arnold J.R. and Russ G.P. (1979) The extent of the lunar regolith mixing. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 44, 409-419.
      • Papike J.J., Simon S.B. and Laul J.C. (1982) The lunar regolith: Chemistry, Mineralogy and Petrology. Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 20, 761-826.
      • Preliminary Science Report NASA SP-235 Pepin R.O., Bradley J.G., Dragon J.C. and Nyquist L.E. (1972) K-Ar dating of lunar fines: Apollo 12, Apollo 14 and Luna 16. Proc. 3rd Lunar Sci. Conf.1569-1588.
      • Quaide W., Overbeck V.R., Bunch T. and Polkowski G. (1971) Investigations of the natural history of the regolith at the Apollo 12 site. Proc. Second Lunar. Sci. Conf.701-718.
      • Rancitelli L.A., Perkins R.W., Felix W.D. and Wogman N.A. (1971) Erosion and mixing of the lunar surface from cosmogenic and primordial radionuclide measurement in Apollo 12 lunar samples. Proc. 2nd Lunar Sci. Conf. 1757-1772.
      • Rancitelli L.A., Perkins R.W., Felix W.D. and Wogman N.A. (1972) Lunar surface processes and cosmic ray characterization from Apollo 12-15 lunar samples analyses. Proc. 3rd Lunar Sci. Conf.1681-1691.
      • Reed G.W. and Jovanovic S. (1971) The halogens and other trace elements in Apollo 12 samples and the implications of halides, platimum metals, and mercury on surfaces. Proc. 2nd Lunar Sci. Conf. 1261-1276.
      • Schnetzler C.C. and Philpotts J.A. (1971) Alkali, alkaline earth, and rare earth element concentrations in some Apollo 12 soils, rocks, and separated phases. Proc. 2nd Lunar Sci. Conf. 1101-1122.
      • Sellers G.A., Woo C.C., Bird M.L and Duke M.B. (1971) Composition and grain-size characteristics of fines from the Apollo 12 double-core tube. Proc. Second Lunar Sci. Conf. 665-678.
      • Shoemaker E.M. and 12 others (1970b) 10. Preliminary geologic investigation of the Apollo12 landing site. In Apollo 12 Preliminary Science Rpt. NASA SP-235 page 113-156.
Resources
  1. Description of Core Samples Returned by Apollo 12 (NASA TM X-58066)(1971) (curator.jsc.nasa.gov/lunar/catalogs/other/apollo12descriptioncoresamples.pdf)
  2. Lunar Core Drive Tubes Summary (https://curator.jsc.nasa.gov/lunar/cores/drive_tubes.cfm)
  3. Sample 12026 Core Photographs (curator.jsc.nasa.gov/lunar/cores/corephotos.cfm?core=12026)
  4. Sample 12027 Core Photographs (curator.jsc.nasa.gov/lunar/cores/corephotos.cfm?core=12027)
  5. Sample 12028 Core Photographs (curator.jsc.nasa.gov/lunar/cores/corephotos.cfm?core=12028)
  6. Sample 12027 Core Synopsis (curator.jsc.nasa.gov/lunar/lnews/pre2004/ln26.pdf)
  7. Lunar Core Catalog (curator.jsc.nasa.gov/lunar/catalogs/other/lunar_core_catalog.pdf)
  8. The Lunar Sample Compendium (curator.jsc.nasa.gov/lunar/lsc/index.cfm) – Details about every Lunar sample.

 

Charts, pictures, etc.

Sample 12026

 

Sample 12027

Apollo 12 sample 12027 location

Lunar Sample Compendium (curator.jsc.nasa.gov/lunar/lsc/12027a.pdf)

 

Apollo 12 sample 12027 FeO

Lunar Sample Compendium (curator.jsc.nasa.gov/lunar/lsc/12027a.pdf)

 

Apollo 12 sample 12027 soil maturity

Lunar Sample Compendium (curator.jsc.nasa.gov/lunar/lsc/12027a.pdf)

 

Apollo 12 sample 12027 modal mineralogy

Lunar Sample Compendium (curator.jsc.nasa.gov/lunar/lsc/12027a.pdf)

 

Apollo 12 sample 12027 Mode

Lunar Sample Compendium (curator.jsc.nasa.gov/lunar/lsc/12027a.pdf)

Sample 12025/12028

 

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